Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) :

   

Why to eat fish ?


Fish is a good source of protein which is easily digestible and essential to keep our body fit .


Where fish can be raised  ?

The best part about fish is that we can raise them in very small ponds as well as big minibarrages, channel which are generally found in village with minimum capital cost but fish can also be raised by constructing exclusive fish farms with a high investment.


How knowledge of basic fish farming will help you ?

The knowledge of basic fish farming for scientific fish culture may be summed up as character of soil & water, availability of fish seed of desirable species of fish, control of fish enemies, breeding technique, scientific farming technique,  storage and marketing of fish produced from the ponds. Such information indulge a youth / a pond holder / famer to raise profit of his resource he got in form of small or big water body with minimum involment of capital.


What are the main characteristics of culturable fish?

ü      Should grow fast easy to breed;

ü      Preferably herbivorous compatible with other species;

ü      Should have consumer preference.


What required for profitable fish farming?

Getting profits from fish farming depends on complete understanding the principles that govern the growth and survival of fish.


Where from you can have this understanding?

To provide this understanding different training programmes in scientific fish farming are been conducted by the Department of Fisheries, Tripura time to time.  

 

How can you find out the quality of soil & water of a pond?

There are 27 nos of soil & water testing labs are situated in the State. The sample of soil & water of the pond should be collected as per guideline given below and send them to the laboratory for testing. The test report along with suggestion for the respective pond will be given from the concern laboratory.

 

In selecting a site for the pond you should also be sure that the site will hold water. Some are too porous or will need special treatment in order to hold water. If possible before starting to construct the pond, consult Fisheries expert to check the area and the soil.

 

 

 

How to collect pond soil for quality check up?

 

Soil should be collected at least 20-30 cm below the pond bottom and preferably four different point of the pond bottom. The soil collected from different parts of a same pond should be mixed thoroughly and dried under shade. Dried soil should be send to the nearest laboratory for analysis.

 

How to collect pond water for quality check up?

 

Pond water sample should be collected once before the sunrise and then at midday. Care should be taken during filling up the sampling bottle that the air bubble should not form and the bottles should be immediately covered with black paper. The collected sample should be send to the nearest laboratory at the same day of collection.

 

   What is a good size and shape for a carp pond?

After selection of the site for the pond with a good water supply, you can start digging. The size and shape of the pond should range between 0.1 hectare to 0.16 hectares in rectangular shape will be a good size pond.

 

How deep should a carp pond be?

The water should be 2 mtr deep and one end and 1 ½ meter deep at the shallow end.

 

What can be done to prevent heavy rains from flooding the pond and breaking the dam?

If the pond is built in a place where it collects too much water in times of heavy rains, a wide ditch should be dug at one side of the Bank to carry away the extra water, when it rains hard, the extra water will run through the side spillway rather than break the sides of the pond.

 

Kinds of fishes suitable for farming:

       Indian Major Carps viz. Rohu, Catla , Mirgla for three species culture.

       Catla, Silver carp, Rohu, Grass Carp, Mrigel & Common carp for six  species culture.

       Rohu, Catla catla, Galda Chingri for polyculture with prawn. 

 

How does raising of fish in farm pond benefits your family?

In one kani of ponds, one can harvest minimum 400 kgs. of fish with proper care, feeding and manuring is timely ensured. It can provide fish for the family and extra for the market as cash crop.

 

 

Pond Construction:


Are there any places where a fish pond should not be constructed?

Another problem is that floods may wash away the banks. To avoid this you should not construct a pond in a low laying are where heavy floods occur.

 


How long should carp be stocked in a pond before one starts to fish them out?

It is advisable to the farmers to practice multiple stocking and periodic hervesting. With a good pond and proper managerial practice partial hervesting of fish can be done and the hervested stock will be replaced by same nos. of stunted fingerlings. And the same practice may be repeated in one month intervels.

Raising fish to big size may not be profitable as after a certaine size the feed to protein convertion ratio decreases and high growth rate

 

 you construct good ponds and manage them well. Carp will be big enough and so you can start fishing them out within about a period of two years from first stocking and thereafter every year by the replenishing the stock simultaneously. The family will have good Nutritious Food to eat and surplus can be sold for profit.

 

From where one can get fish seed for fish farms:

Seed of Indian Major Carps & Mirror carps is available at State’s fish farms at Kumarghat,Panisagar,Kanchanpur,Dharmanagar,Karamcherra,Avanga,Lembucherra,Khowai, Chakmaghat, Udaipur, Muharipur,Amarpur, Sabroom, Gandacherra during June  to August . 

 

To whom to contact for further information and TRAINING NEEDS  ?

you are free to contact: The nearest block or Sub-Divisional offices of the Department.


Care feeding & Management:

·        How should water look in a pond for fish?

Water for growing fish should not be clear and transparent. It should be greenish in colour. The green colour means that the water has lots of small plants called Algae, which provide food for the fish. (Applied only for carp farming).

 

 What does the colour in fish pond water means?

The colour of water is indicator whether the pond has enough fish food in the pond or not. So the colour of the water is very vital important factor to make a start in the fish culture.

 

        What can be used to fertilize a fish pond to make the water greenish?

Ponds need to be fertilized just as we fertilize out fields and gardens. Any kind of animal manure makes good fertilizer.

 

        How do you fertilize a pond with cow manure?

Cow manure should be put in the pond in a burlap sack. The Nitrogen will be dissolved by the water, and will help the green algae to grow.

 

 


Lab to pond service:

·        How much chemical fertilizer should be thrown into a small pond to fetilize it?

Chemical fertilizer with lots of Nitrogen is also good. Only a few handfuls are needed for a small pond.

 

        If the soil is acidic, what must be done to a fish pond?

In some areas, where soils are acidic, lime must be added. The lime can be spread on the bottom of the pond, or it can be thrown into the water.

 

        What causes a green scum on the surface of a fertilize fish pond?

In a fertile pond, the water may have a green scum on top. The fish like to eat the green scum, which consists of many small plants. It indicates that the pond is ready for planting fish seed.

 

        What kinds of fishes are the best for stocking in ponds?

Catla, Rohu, Mirgal, Mirror carp, Silver Carp, grass carp and trout are the best kinds of fish for stocking in ponds/ raceways. These all kinds can grow fastly in a pond without competing with each other in consuming food of the pond.

 

Common disease of fish

 
 

Common disease of fish

Causes , Symptoms, Reasons, Actions, Treatments

Disease and Causes

Symptoms

Reason for Infection

Action

Treatment

Ulcers

Caused by Pseudomonas and Aeromonas bacteria

Pinky-white open wounds, often with a white edge and sometimes secondarily infected by fungi and other bacteria.

Very poor water quality or an excessively high pH level. Minor scratches can become infected if conditions are poor. Also commonly affects newly imported Koi and goldfish.

Test the water for signs of ammonia and nitrite. Conduct a large water change to reduce pollution levels.

Fish lose salts quickly through open wounds, so add aquarium salt at a dose of 1-3g/litre. Use an anti-ulcer treatment. If treatment fails, a vet can prescribe stronger antibiotics.

Cloudy eye

Caused by poor water quality, poor diet, eye flukes, corneal damage, bacterial infection.

Entire surface or lens of eye takes on a cloudy, opaque appearance. There may be a build-up of mucus on the outer surface.

Most commonly caused by poor water conditions. A lack of vitamins in the diet may also cause clouding. On rare occasions digenetic flukes, such as Diplostomum, can cause problems.

Improve water conditions. Use a good quality food containing added vitamins.

Improving water conditions usually cures cloudy eyes. Eye flukes are uncommon and can be difficult to accurately diagnose and treat.

Dropsy

Usually caused by bacterial infection. Viral infection, nutritional, metabolic and osmoregulatory problems can also be responsible.

Swelling of the body cavity due to a build-up of fluid. Scales become raised giving a pinecone-like appearance. One or both of the eyes may be protruded.

Usually triggered by poor water quality, especially the presence of ammonia and nitrite. Often confined to individual fish.

Test water and improve water conditions immediately. Aquarium salt at a dose of 1- 3g/litre can help to prevent salt loss.

Can be difficult to treat. A broad spectrum anti- bacteria treatment is the best option in most cases.

White spot

Caused by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis parasite

Small white spots, about the size of a salt grain, on the skin, fins and gills.

Stress related. Usually a consequence of poor or incorrect water conditions, fluctuating temperature and general poor husbandry. Sensitive species may develop white spot as a result of being introduced to a new aquarium.

Ensure the water is free of pollution and isolate cause of stress.

Treat promptly with an anti-parasite medication. It may be necessary to raise the water temperature to improve the effectiveness of the treatment. Wounds left by parasites may become secondarily infected.


Bacterial infection

Caused by Aeromonas and Pseudomonas bacteria

Reddening of the skin or fins; ragged fins with signs of infection, open sores. Common on many newly imported fishes. Often accompanied by other diseases, including fungi.

Poor water conditions, especially the presence of ammonia and nitrite. Wounds resulting from poor handling, transport or fighting may become secondarily infected by these bacteria if conditions are poor.

Improve water conditions, and treat promptly.

Use a proprietary treatment as soon as possible. Aquarium salt at a dose of 1- 3g/litre can help prevent salt loss. Severe infections may require prescription medications from a vet.

Fungus

Caused by Saprolegnia and Achlya

Fluffy growths affecting wounds on the skin and fins of freshwater fishes.

Usually a secondary infection that invades wounds left by ulcers and parasites, including whitespot. Rarely a problem in tanks with good water quality.

Improve water conditions and treat promptly.

Standard anti- fungal medications, such as methylene blue, are usually very effective, but may affect filtration and water quality. When the disease occurs on open wounds, aquarium salt at a dose of 1-3g/litre can help reduce salt loss. Cotton-wool disease (Flexibacter) looks similar but is caused by bacteria and may require a different treatment.

Finrot

Caused by Aeromonas, Pseudomonas or Flexibacter bacteria

Frayed fins, often with a pale pinky-white edge and some blood in the fin tissue.

The bacteria are present on most fish. Stress from poor water conditions usually triggers an infection. Nipped fins may become secondarily infected if water is polluted. Some wounds may also be attacked by fungus.

Improve water conditions. Isolate nippy fishes.

Treat promptly with a finrot or anti-bacteria treatment to prevent the further spread of the disease. Consider adding salt (1-3g/litre) to reduce the loss of salt by the fish. Ensure that water stays free of pollution during treatment.

Swimbladder disorder

Caused by bacterial infection, incorrect diet, trapped gas, physical deformities.

Fish have difficulty swimming to the surface, or to the lower levels of the tank. Commonly affects egg-shaped fancy goldfish.

Sometimes caused by poor water quality. Genetic problems in selectively-bred goldfish.

Improve water conditions. Feed less dried foods, or pre-soak pellets and flakes so they don't swell the gut. Feed Daphnia, which acts as a laxative.

Change diet and improve water conditions. Treat with a specialist anti-bacteria treatment. Fancy goldfish suffering from physical deformities will not recover.

Lymphocystis

Caused by an iridovirus

The virus causes crusty grey-white lumps to develop on the skin and fins. These may affect freshwater or marine fishes, and sometimes take on the colour of the underlying skin. These lumps are clusters of enlarged cells.

The disease is viral, but may be triggered by stress, poor handling or poor water. Some fish may carry the virus without showing symptoms.

The disease rarely kills, although lesions may become secondarily infected. Ideally, infected fish should be isolated.

There is no known treatment. Some vets recommend the surgical removal of the lesions.

 
 

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